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Conceiving an international instrument on limitations and exceptions to copyright

This study, sponsored by the Open Society Institute (OSI), reflects contributions from leading copyright and IP experts, who participated at a workshop sponsored by the OSI and held at the Cardozo School of Law in New York in December, 2007. The task of developing a global approach to limitations and exceptions ("L&E's") is one of the major challenges facing the international copyright system today. As mechanisms of access, L&E's contribute to the dissemination of knowledge, which in turn is essential for a variety of human activities and values, including liberty, the exercise of political power, and economic, social and personal advancement. Part I analyses the structure of limitations and exceptions under the Berne Convention and sketches the rationale for a multilateral approach to the question of limitations and exceptions. Part II explores flexibilities inside the international copyright acquis, review the three-step test and assess its import for the validity of a proposed international instrument on L&E's, particularly given the expansion of the test in the TRIPS Agreement and the interpretive jurisprudence of the WTO dispute panels.
   
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Complying with the National Institutes of Health Public Access Policy: Copyright Considerations and Options

Effective April 7, 2008, investigators must deposit articles stemming from NIH funding into the agency's PubMed Central online archive, to be made publicly available no later than 12 months after publication in a journal. This whitepaper from the Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC), Science Commons and the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) seeks to help university and medical school administrators ensure their institutions comply with public access requirements that are soon to be a condition of National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding.
   
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A study of Canadian authorship in selected SPARC Alternative journals in the early years after their introduction

The Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC) is an initiative of the Association of Research Libraries. In 1998 SPARC introduced the Alternative Program working with partners to launch new journals to compete with existing high-priced titles in the STM field. Currently there are 11 titles in this program listed on the website (http://www.arl.org/sparc/partner/partnerlist.html), three of which are freely accessible. This paper examines the earliest adopters, Organic Letters and Evolutionary Ecology Research to determine author satisfaction with these journals. Organic Letters although originally a SPARC Alternative journal is no longer listed under this Program. A survey of Canadian authors in these journals in the first five years since inception provides insight into the reasons why they chose to publish in these journals and has definite implications for librarians. The results of these surveys are discussed in the larger framework of existing scholarly communication models.
   
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Educating authors of biomedical publications to the benefits of Open Access journals

In spite of the advantages of Open Access Publishing, some reluctance to support the OA concept still persists among scientific authors. This is mainly due to the lack of or low value of impact factor (IF) of OA journals which leads researchers to consider them as no high quality sources. Some OA journals are however quickly gaining IF and thus they are becoming more "appealing". Educating scientific authors regarding the benefits of OA is the core purpose of an ongoing initiative aimed at establishing a pilot group of Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS, Italian National Institute of Health) researchers supporting the OA paradigm: their activity as starters of an innovative publishing policy is targeted to favouring OA principles among ISS research staff. The publishing practice of ISS researchers with respect to OA journals is being investigated with the objective to find the best strategy to educate authors and foster this new model of publication that guarantees free access to research results in favour of the entire scientific community.
   
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Open Access&Science Publishing: Results of a Study on Researchers' Acceptance and Use of Open Access Publishing

This report summarises the main descriptive results of a study on researcher's acceptance of Open Access publishing. The study was conducted in 2006 by the Ludwig-Maximilans-University Munich, Germany, in cooperation with the University of Arkansas at Little Rock. The main focus is centered on the question if and why scientists decide or do not decide to publish their work according to the Open Access principle without access barriers and free of cost to readers. With the responses from 688 publishing scientists it could be demonstrated that the general attitude toward the Open Access principle is extremely positive.
   
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